Aspirin Slashes Colon Cancer Risk – Study

On average, the trials lasted six years, entailing volunteers who took either aspirin or a dummy lookalike pill called a placebo. The doses ranged up to 1200 mg. Out of 14,033 patients whose health could be traced 18 years or so since the trial, 391 had colorectal cancer, the investigators found. Taking aspirin reduced the risk of cancer by 24 per cent and the risk of dying from it by 35 per cent. The results were consistent across all four trials – and there was no increase in benefits beyond a dose of 75 mg. Where the reduction was most remarkable was in cases of proximal colon cancer. These occur in the upper colon and are thus liable to be missed in lower-intestine scans for polyps, the precursor of tumours. The authors say their study had limits, as the original trials were not designed to look at aspects of colorectal cancer, nor was data available for any deaths from aspirin’s side effects. Also, aspirin’s benefit may have been somewhat over-estimated, they said. This was because the original trials took place before colon screening for polyps became a routine practice in those countries. Even so, the evidence has now swung the scales in favour of low-dosage aspirin for a disease that claims 600,000 deaths worldwide each year, they said.

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Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians

Endoscopic screening is often carried out without a prior FOBT examination. “We saw quite clearly that the greater proportions of men and women who were screened, the greater the reductions in mortality,” Prof Autier will say. “Reduced death rates from CRC were not noticeable in countries where screening was low, even though healthcare services in those countries were similar to those in countries where screening was more widespread.” In Austria, where 61% of all those studied reported having undertaken a FOBT, deaths from CRC dropped by 39% for men and 47% for women during the period. In Greece, however, where only 8% of males had had an endoscopic examination as opposed to 35% in Austria, death rates from CRC rose during the period by 30% for men and 2% for women. Overall, in all the European countries studied, 73% of the decrease in CRC mortality over ten years in males, and 82% in females, could be explained by their having had one or more endoscopic examination of the large bowel over the last ten years. “The evidence could not be clearer,” Prof Autier says, “and it is therefore very disappointing that national differences in the availability of CRC screening programmes are still so pronounced.” The researchers believe that the large differences in screening rates between different European countries are due to a number of factors. “First, many countries still do not have a national CRC screening programme. Second, the acceptability of screening methods is often low, sometimes due to cultural differences between countries. There is also the question of the availability of qualified personnel. In some countries, there are insufficient gastroenterologists available to perform endoscopy. Even with FOBT screening, an endoscopy is needed if the test is positive,” says Prof Autier. Since the main goal of CRC screening is to remove polyps in the bowel, the risk of over-diagnosis is low, unlike that seen in breast and prostate cancer screening. “The risk of bowel perforation with endoscopy, while not non-existent, is very low and so far no trial has reported rates of perforation that could compromise the feasibility of screening on either practical or ethical grounds,” Prof Autier says. The researchers now intend to gather further data on screening and to include those from the USA, Canada, and Australia. “There are signs that CRC screening can reduce the incidence of this cancer as well as mortality from it, in exactly the same way as is happening with cervical cancer screening. We would also like to investigate the cost-effectiveness of CRC screening, since we believe that it has the potential to bring about economic gains associated with averted CRC cases and deaths, and hence to more than pay for its initial cost,” says Prof Autier.

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Colorectal cancer screening works

Perceptions of personal susceptibility to, and perceived severity of the disease, belief in ones ability to undertake a preventive action (perceived self-efficacy), the potential benefits of, and perceived barriers to undertaking this behaviour, all influence an individuals decision to partake in a preventive action. Attitudes are also influenced by demographic and other structural or socio-psychological factors. This model purports that a cue to action must occur to trigger a behavioural change; this may result from a doctors recommendation, media advertisement or an intervention. Several studies have used health belief theories to understand and identify factors associated with screening compliance [ 28 – 31 ]. By taking a similar approach, this study aimed to elucidate factors that may be associated with CRC screening intention. We present findings from a baseline survey that was conducted as part of an intervention study to assess the current knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of Indigenous Western Australians in relation to bowel cancer and screening with FOBT. This information is critical for identifying specific areas for intervention, and focus for health promotion and education, to improve uptake of CRC screening and reduce disparities in bowel cancer outcomes for Indigenous Australians. Methods Study participants and data collection Participants were recruited from two regional and one metropolitan site in Western Australia through community and family networks of health professionals known to the researchers. Recruitment occurred between November 2009-March 2010 with assistance from Aboriginal staff employed in Aboriginal-specific health services. Eligibility criteria included self-identification as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, aged 35 years or more, and the provision of written informed consent prior to participation. Questionnaires were administered at face-to-face interviews and participants received $20 to compensate for time and travel expenses. An Indigenous reference group assisted with all aspects of the study. The Western Australian Aboriginal Human Information and Ethics Committee (250 08/09) and the Curtin University Research Ethics Committee (CIH 11-2009) approved the study. Questionnaire Survey development The questionnaire measured respondents knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours related to the prevention, early detection and treatment of bowel cancer. The instrument was adapted and further developed from surveys identified in relevant literature, as no existing validated questionnaire was found that examined these elements in Indigenous Australians for any cancer screening modality.

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New Colon Cancer Screening Guidelines

If you’re at high risk, you may need to start screening before 50. That recommendation isn’t new, but it often goes unheeded. Beyond that, the guidelines split colon cancer tests into two groups — tests that lookinside the body and those done on stools. Tests done inside the body can spot cancer and polyps (abnormal growths that may develop into cancer). Stool tests primarily focus on detecting cancer, not polyps, according to the American Cancer Society. Here are the American Cancer Society’s recommendations for both types of tests. Tests for Cancer and Polyps If you’re looking for a test that can spot cancer and polyps, the American Cancer Society recommends choosing between these options: Flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, or Colonoscopy every 10 years, or Double-contrast barium enema every five years, or “Virtual colonoscopy” (computed tomographic colonography) every five years This is the first time that virtual colonoscopy has made the American Cancer Society’s list of acceptable screening tests. Stool Tests If you’re looking for a stool test, here are the choices recommended by the American Cancer Society. Annual guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) with high test sensitivity for cancer, or Annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT) with high sensitivity for cancer, or Stool DNA (sDNA) test with high sensitivity for cancer (optimal interval between tests unknown) The American Cancer Society notes that stool tests are less likely to prevent cancer than tests that look for cancer inside the body. Also, stool tests must be regularly repeated. And if a stool test finds blood in stools, patients should get a colonoscopy. About the Tests Here is a quick look at the recommended tests: Flexible sigmoidoscopy: Doctors use a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera to examine the rectum and the lower part of the colon. Colonoscopy: Similar to flexible sigmoidoscopy, but includes the entire colon. Double-contrast barium enema: An X-ray test used to picture the inside of the colon. Virtual colonoscopy: Uses CTscans to picture the inside of the colon.

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Colon cancer screening confusion

False-negative and false-positive results are possible. Flexible sigmoidoscopy Flexible sigmoidoscopy is an exam used to evaluate the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon). A thin, flexible tube (sigmoidoscope) is inserted into the rectum. A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the rectum and most of the sigmoid colon. Pros. Sedation isn’t usually needed. Biopsies can be taken through the scope during the exam. The exam typically takes about 15 to 20 minutes. Cons. Typically one or more enemas are done before the procedure to empty the lower part of the colon. In some cases, you might not be able to eat solid food the day before the exam. The exam doesn’t allow the doctor to see the entire colon, so any cancers or polyps farther into the colon can’t be detected. Rare complications may include bleeding from the biopsy site or a tear in the lining of the colon. Cramping or bloating might occur after the exam. Additional tests might be necessary if an abnormality is detected. What’s the bottom line?


Colon Cancer Screenings Work, Twin Studies Report

Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and even fecal blood

Colonoscopy remains the most effective screening tool, reducing the risk of colon cancer death by 56 percent, according to new data published in the Sept. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. Two other recommended screening methods, however, also greatly reduce colon cancer mortality, the researchers found. Flexible sigmoidoscopy provides a 40 percent lower risk of dying from colon cancer, while annual fecal blood testing offers a 32 percent reduced death risk. “The inclusion of all these tests in the guidelines of major organizations continues to make sense,” said Dr. Durado Brooks, director of prostate and colorectal cancers for the American Cancer Society. “Quite honestly, many patients don’t have access to colonoscopy or are not willing to undergo a screening colonoscopy. Many studies have shown that offering patients options will increase the likelihood that they will complete some form of screening, and that is what is most important.” The results come from a pair of studies testing the long-term health benefits of screening for colon cancer. The first study investigated the use of colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy among a group of almost 89,000 health professionals during a 20-year period. Colonoscopy uses a thin tube equipped with a camera to examine the entire length of the colon in a procedure for which patients are usually sedated. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a similar procedure but with a shorter tube that examines less of the colon, so patients do not have to be sedated. The study found colonoscopy was more effective in preventing cancer throughout the entire colon, but that both procedures greatly reduced the overall risk of colon cancer death, said Dr.

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Colon cancer screening: Weighing the options

December 21, 2008 at 18:36 | Report abuse | Reply Jo Ellen Navarro My husband had his first colonoscopy 2 years ago by a gastroenterologist. There were 4 polyps removed and one too large to be removed. He had surgery for that polyp in his rectum which was malignant. The surgeon then scheduled him for a coloscopy (without explaining what it really was to us). He had the surgery and sees an oncologist every 3 months for lab work. They say he is fine and no sign of reoccurence; however, in this time, my brother has died from kidney cancer, our son has died from testacular cancer (metastisezed to the liver) and our best friend has died from colon cancer. Yes, we are always afraid but it has been 2 years now and he is alive, but he is miserable and Hates the colostomy bags. He says he would never go through it again. I recommend the colonoscopy and endoscopy (as I have Barrets) but, PLEASE ask lots of questions…. December 27, 2008 at 16:55 | Report abuse | Reply Gupta Gastro We take colon cancer screening very seriously. The death toll from colorectal cancer is much higher than it needs to be. The rates of death are so high that it is almost equivalent to the American deaths during the Vietnam war YEAR after YEAR. Do your research.

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Exercise Tied To Better Colon Cancer Survival Odds

The findings don’t prove exercise itself boosts a person’s survival chances, researchers said. But the pattern held even after the study team took into account how advanced patients’ cancers were, their age and other aspects of their diet, lifestyle and health. “Any activity is better than none,” including walking, stretching and gardening, said Peter Campbell, the lead researcher on the study from the American Cancer Society. “Five to ten minutes at a time is fine, and the type of activity we’re talking about here, this isn’t marathon running or climbing the Alps.” Campbell’s analysis included about 2,300 people who developed colon cancer out of an initial pool of 184,000 volunteers in a cancer prevention and nutrition study launched in 1992. Over an average of eight years after their diagnosis, 846 people with colon cancer died – including 379 from cancer. The researchers found that study participants who exercised the most – equal to two and half hours of walking per week or more – both before and after being diagnosed were 28 to 42 percent less likely to die during the follow-up period than those who barely exercised at all. Spending six or more hours of leisure time on the couch daily before diagnosis, compared to less than three hours, was tied to a 36 percent higher chance of dying. Being sedentary after a cancer diagnosis was linked to a 27 percent increased risk of death – although that particular finding could have been due to chance, the researchers noted this week in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. To account for the fact that very sick people can’t exercise, Campbell and his colleagues excluded anyone who died within two years of their last survey, and found similar results. Researchers have known for a while that obesity and exercise affect a person’s risk of getting colon cancer in the first place, said Dr. Jeffrey Meyerhardt from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, who has also studied exercise and colon cancer survival. “The question when you’re a patient with colorectal cancer is, Do those things matter once I get the disease? Are there things I can do in addition to standard treatment to reduce my risk of recurrence?'” he told Reuters Health. Researchers said there are a couple of possible explanations for why exercise, both pre- and post-diagnosis, might benefit people with cancer. “What we think is at least part of what is happening is, people are going into surgery and adjuvant treatment in a more fit state,” Campbell told Reuters Health. In addition, he said, “If you’re active both before and after diagnosis, there are a lot of changes that occur in your blood,” such as in levels of insulin and other hormones.

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Aspirin helps survival from colorectal cancer

It is thought that the impact of aspirin may come through its inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which is overexpressed in many colorectal cancers. A team at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School has shown that aspirin also helps survival in patients who have already got colorectal cancer and, indeed, also reduces overall mortality. They looked at the long-running Health Professionals Follow-up Study and also the Nurses Health Study, identifying a group of 1,279 men and women who had colorectal cancer and provided information on aspirin use. Follow up was around 12 years, during which time there were 193 total deaths (35%) and 81 (15%) deaths from colorectal cancer among those who used aspirin regularly after their cancer diagnosis. The figures for those who did not use aspirin were 287 total deaths (39%) and 141 (19%) deaths from colorectal cancer. Five year survival for aspirin users was 88% and 83% for non-aspirin users. At ten years, these rates were 74% and 69%. Regular use of aspirin after diagnosis was linked to 29% lower risk of death from colorectal cancer overall, with an even higher reduction in those with grade II or grade III cancer, which carry a bigger risk. The benefit, however, was confined to those whose tumors overexpressed COX-2, where aspirin acts, and to those who took up aspirin after cancer was diagnosed. The study is not suggesting that all those who have colorectal cancer should now start on aspirin further, well-designed prospective studies are needed before this can be recommended. The study opens up the possibility of tailoring aspirin use to those whose colorectal tumors are positive for COX-2 overexpression.

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Exercise Tied To Better Colon Cancer Survival Odds

To account for the fact that very sick people can’t exercise, Campbell and his colleagues excluded anyone who died within two years of their last survey, and found similar results. Researchers have known for a while that obesity and exercise affect a person’s risk of getting colon cancer in the first place, said Dr. Jeffrey Meyerhardt from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, who has also studied exercise and colon cancer survival. “The question when you’re a patient with colorectal cancer is, Do those things matter once I get the disease? Are there things I can do in addition to standard treatment to reduce my risk of recurrence?'” he told Reuters Health. Researchers said there are a couple of possible explanations for why exercise, both pre- and post-diagnosis, might benefit people with cancer. “What we think is at least part of what is happening is, people are going into surgery and adjuvant treatment in a more fit state,” Campbell told Reuters Health. In addition, he said, “If you’re active both before and after diagnosis, there are a lot of changes that occur in your blood,” such as in levels of insulin and other hormones. “There are a lot of systemic changes that occur that probably decrease your chance of recurrence and ultimately dying.” People in the study who exercised regularly were less likely to die in general and of cardiovascular disease – such as heart attacks and lung disease – in particular. For those patients, exercise likely has the same benefit as for cancer-free people, Campbell said. “Patients that have colon cancer, about two-thirds of them survive after five years and what they end up dying of is what all older people end up dying of, and that’s usually cardiovascular disease.” He said people with colon cancer should discuss with their doctors when they can get back to physical activity.


What Causes Colon Cancer?

Candace Pert

Chronic dehydration and enzyme deficiency due to a lack of whole, fresh foods in the diet are also important factors. People who are obese or over age 50 are more likely to have colon cancer, as well as those with diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease. Impaired immunity Many cancer specialists believe that the immune system effectively deals with malignant cells all the time, day in and day out. In fact, according to Patrick Quillin, PhD, and others, the average adult gets six bouts of cancer in a lifetime. Yet most people never know they have it because the immune system manages it below the level of dis-ease in the body. However, when the immune system is severely impaired due to poor diet, lack of exercise, high levels of mental or emotional stress, exposure to environmental toxins, or when other common risk factors come into play, the cancer cells can take over and begin to form a mass. Where the cancer cells accumulate and grow has much to do with the accumulation of toxins and nutrient deficient cells in the body. Tumor growth It stands to reason that cancer in the colon forms because of an unhealthy state within the large intestine. Most colon cancers are initiated as polyps or small benign growths (tumors) that may grow into malignant colon cancers over time. This process could take months, years or even decades before any symptoms may appear.Some common types of polyps include: Inflammatory polyps: often appear after colon inflammation (colitis) and may become cancerous Adenomas: are usually removed during colonoscopy but can become cancerous if undetected Hyperplastic polyps: rarely become cancerous Metastasis Many medical specialists believe that after polyps or other tumors become malignant, the cancer cells may travel through the lymph system or blood to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis. However, some cancer specialists dont necessarily agree that cancer spreads from one localized part of the body to another. Dr.

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Musician Battles Stage Iv Colon Cancer

Wade Hayes performs at the Stars Go Blue For Colon Cancer benefit on March 6, 2012.

“That part of it has been really shocking for me. I had no idea how many people cared about me or even knew I existed.” Robertson says that’s the kind of person Hayes is — modest to a fault; an introvert who enjoys reading detective dramas and has no desire to just sit around. Hayes lives with his dog, Jack, a boxer he found as a stray, eating out of the garbage at a filling station 75 miles from Nashville. He loaded the starving, tick-covered dog into the back of his truck and took him home, where Jack proceeded to chew on everything in sight. “He’s very lovable but a pain the ass — just like me,” Hayes says with a laugh. Hayes’ scans were clear of tumors in early March. But the musician still has four more months of chemotherapy to go. Chemo has left his hands and mouth incredibly sensitive. Food tastes funny, and touching anything cold feels like “being electrocuted.” Some days, he has trouble gripping his guitar. He performed at the Stars Go Blue benefit concert for Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month on March 6 but had trouble singing because of the chemo’s effects on his vocal cords. If I had caught it early, I wouldn’t be where I am now. Wade Hayes He’s eager to get back to writing music, but the chemotherapy chemicals invading his body make it difficult to concentrate. “He’s seen something taken away that he’s very passionate to get back to,” Robertson says of Hayes’ impatience. “He’s always bounced back from everything. I think he thought he’d have the surgery, and then. …

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